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The various entities that support the research interests. Those include the persistence of racism specifically as it relates to public school funding policy, practice, and educational disparities; disproportionate discipline practices; significant disproportionality; urban education, equity, gender performance, school finance, and charter school performance for students historically underperforming.

Research References

Gunn, S., Polega, M., Smart, R. Amorim Neto, R., Gotzs, N., Moore, J., (2019). The Impact of Teacher Coaching on Student Engagement: A Mixed-Methods Study.


Caldwell, P.,  Richardson, J., Smart, R., & Polega, M. (2022) The intersectionality of educating Black students: Public school finance, racial segregation, and housing policy. Journal of Education Human Resources.

Caldwell, P., Smart, R., & Richardson, J. (2021) An investigation to explain structural racism associated with Michigan public charter districts funding effort. Journal of Education Human Resources.

Caldwell, P., Pearson, A., & Smart R. (2020) Addressing disproportionate discipline: Building equity by understanding the need for change. Principal Leadership. March ed.

Grobb, K, Smart, R. Laughlin-Tommaso, S., Dobson, M., & Seegmiller Renner, A. (2023). MedEd CRIT: A proposed integrated theory to problematize racism and oppression in medical education and medical practice. [pending]

Smart, R., Caldwell, P., Richardson. J, & Sim, G. (2022) The Crisis of Michigan’s Public School Funding and Its Influence on Human Resources Management. [pending]

Smart, R. E. (2019). Comparing resource-allocation practices on student performance between charter public schools and traditional public schools [University of Michigan].

Smart, R. & Caldwell, P. (2017). An analysis: The resource management of public schools in Michigan. Journal of Effective Schools Project, Vol 25.

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